SQL transaction status and XACT_STATE()

XACT_STATE() is a scalar function that gives the user transaction state of a current running request. It indicates whether the request has an active user transaction, and whether the transaction is capable of being committed or not.

XACT_STATE returns the following three values

  • 1: The current request has an active user transaction. The request can perform any actions, including writing data and committing the transaction.

  • 0: There is no active user transaction for the current request.

  • -1: The current request has an active user transaction, but an error has occurred that has
    caused the transaction to be classified as an uncommittable transaction. The request cannot commit the transaction or roll back to a savepoint; it can only request a full rollback of the transaction. The request cannot perform any write operations until it rolls back the transaction. The request can only perform read operations until it rolls back the transaction. After the transaction has been rolled back, the request can perform both read and write operations and can begin a new transaction.

So before commit or rollback always test XACT_STATE for 0, 1, or -1.

  • If 1, the transaction is committable.
  • If -1, the transaction is uncommittable and should be rolled back.
  • If 0, there is no transaction and a commit or rollback operation will generate an error.

Example:

   BEGIN TRY    
    BEGIN TRANSACTION;
        -- A FOREIGN KEY constraint exists on this table.  
        -- This statement will generate a constraint violation error.
        DELETE FROM Production.Product
            WHERE ProductID = 980;

    -- If the delete operation succeeds, commit the transaction. The CATCH
    -- block will not execute.
    COMMIT TRANSACTION;
END TRY
BEGIN CATCH
    -- Test XACT_STATE for 0, 1, or -1.

    -- Test whether the transaction is uncommittable.
    IF (XACT_STATE()) = -1
    BEGIN
        PRINT 'The transaction is in an uncommittable state.' +
              ' Rolling back transaction.'
        ROLLBACK TRANSACTION;
    END;

    -- Test whether the transaction is active and valid.
    IF (XACT_STATE()) = 1
    BEGIN
        PRINT 'The transaction is committable.' + 
              ' Committing transaction.'
        COMMIT TRANSACTION;   
    END;
END CATCH

Both the XACT_STATE and @@TRANCOUNT functions can be used to detect whether the current request has an active user transaction.

@@TRANCOUNT cannot be used to determine whether that transaction has been classified as an uncommittable transaction.

Note: XACT_STATE cannot be used to determine whether there are nested transactions.

Ali Adravi Having 13+ years of experience in Microsoft Technologies (C#, ASP.Net, MVC and SQL Server). Worked with Metaoption LLC, for more than 9 years and still with the same company. Always ready to learn new technologies and tricks.
  • sql server
By Ali Adravi On 28 Dec, 12  Viewed: 6,185

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